Rubella vaccine - vaccination in children and adults
Rubella and doses of the vaccine
The vaccine against rubella is the injection of live attenuated (weakened). Although there is specific rubella vaccine, vaccination is usually done with MMR, which immunizes against rubella, measles and mumps. The MMR vaccination is recommended for children between 12 and 15 months, with a second dose between 4 and 6 years old. The rubella vaccine is particularly important for women who may become pregnant not immunized because of the serious risks to the fetus if they are infected during pregnancy.
What is MMR vaccine against rubella, measles and mumps?
MMR vaccine is a mixture of three types of live attenuated viruses. It is administered via injection for immunization against rubella, measles and mumps. MMR is usually given to children after completing 1 year of age, with a second dose before entering the school, with 4 or 5 years of age. The second dose of the vaccine is not a building, it is to immunize the small number of people (2-5%) who have not acquired immunity in the first dose.
Why the MMR vaccine rubella, measles and mumps is given after the first year of the child?
Most children receive passive protection against measles, rubella and mumps as mothers antibodies. Such antibodies may destroy the vaccine viruses are present when it is administered, compromising its effectiveness. After 12 months of age most children have lost this passive protection.
Rubella vaccination in adults
The main objective of vaccination against rubella adults is to prevent congenital rubella syndrome, which can cause serious harm to the fetus. About 20% of women of reproductive age are still susceptible to rubella despite vaccination programs. Rubella virus can infect the fetus at any stage of pregnancy, but the defects to the fetus rarely occur if the infection occurs after 16 the week of pregnancy. Pregnant women should not be vaccinated against rubella, since the vaccine contains viruses.
What women wishing to become pregnant should do about rubella?
It is recommended that all women who wish to become pregnant to make test to know if they are immunized against rubella. If necessary, the woman should be immunized with the vaccine before becoming pregnant. This prevents the child contracting congenital rubella syndrome, which can be fatal to the fetus or cause serious problems. If the woman becomes pregnant without being immunized, should avoid contact with people who have symptoms suggestive of rubella, as spots on the face.
The transmission of rubella occurs through the air when coughing, talking or sneezing. The confirmation that the person has been infected by rubella is made by blood test. The person with rubella can transmit the disease in about a week before the appearance of stains and about a week later.